Please read important topics from this time:
Early systematic human dissections were carried out by the Greek physicians Herophilus of Chalcedon and Erasistratus of Chios in the early part of the third century BC. Before and after this time investigators appeared to largely limit themselves to non-human animals. [b]Roman law forbade dissection and autopsy of the human body,[[/b]3] so physicians such as Galen were unable to work on cadavers. Galen for example dissected the Barbary Macaque and other primates, assuming their anatomy was basically the same as that of humans. [b] Human dissections were also conducted by Arabic physicians from the 11th century, after Islamic scholars such as Al-Ghazali expressed support for its practice. Some of the Arabic physicians who have performed dissections include Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar) (1091-1161) in Al-Andalus, Saladin's physician Ibn Jumay during the 12th century, Abd-el-latif in Egypt circa 1200, and Ibn al-Nafis in Syria and Egypt during the 13th century.[/b]
Unlike pagan Rome, Christian Europe did not exercise a universal prohibition of the dissection and autopsy of the human body and such examinations were carried out regularly from at least the 13th century. It has even been suggested that the Christian theology contributed significantly to the revival of human dissection and autopsy by providing a new socio-religious and cultural context in which the human cadaver was no longer seen as sacrosanct.
Also read: God’s Philosophers: How the Medieval World Laid the Foundations of Modern Science
Nicely reviewed at this interesting blog (atheist blogger): Armarium Magnum
Please read about the Renaissance of the 12th century. Especially the rise of science, reason as well as the Scholastic system and the start of the first universities as we know them today.
Please try and understand that the so-called “dark ages” are not as a result of those dastardly Christians but because Rome was sacked several times by the Visigoths, barbarians, vandals, gauls etc. (387BC-546BC). If it wasn’t for the church’s active campaigns to regain knowledge from ancient Greece and Rome as well as Arabia and the Middle east, the 12th century Renaissance would never have happened… no universities, no dissections, no science etc.
And of course this classic should be read by all those who are interested in modern science:
The metaphysical foundations of modern physical science